Circle of Security Intervention
Designations as an Evidence-Based Intervention
2013 Designated as Promising Practice in child welfare
The Washington State Institute of Public Policy (WSIPP) and the University of Washington Evidence Based Practice Institute designates Circle of Security a Promising Practice.
2013 Rated as “Promising Research Evidence” in home visiting, infant and toddler mental health and parent training.
2002 Designated as a Reported Effective Program
1999 Recognized as an Exemplary Practice, Early Head Start Federal Review
“. . . The Regional Office recognizes Spokane's Early Head Start Program for its leadership in the area of Attachment and Bonding and its partnership with [Circle of Security]. The Regional Office has designated this work as an Exemplary Practice and recognizes it as a model for other programs. This designation will be shared with the Central Office in order to build upon and expand the base of Best Practices for Early Head Start.” - Early Head Start Federal Review (June, 1999)
Circle of Security Research
Study 1: Jail Diversion Program
Ainsworth Strange Situation Assessment
Insecure / Disorganized
Cassidy, J., Ziv, Y., Stupica, B., Sherman, L. J., Butler, H., Karfgin, A., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K. T., & Powell, B. (2010). Enhancing maternal sensitivity and attachment security in the infants of women in a jail-diversion program. In J. Cassidy, J. Poehlmann, & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Incarcerated individuals and their children viewed from the perspective of attachment theory. Special issue of Attachment and Human Development.
The study involved a jail-diversion program titled “Tamar’s Children.” Women who were identified as pregnant in jail or who were pregnant during their sentencing period were offered the opportunity to enroll in this jail diversion program. Twenty mothers completed treatment and were seen with their 12-month-olds in the Ainsworth Strange Situation attachment assessment. Fourteen of the 20 infants (70%) were classified as securely attached to mother. This rate of security is significantly higher than rates typically observed in samples of high-risk mothers, and was identical to the rates typical of low-risk, middle-class samples. In addition, only four infants (20%) were classified as insecure/disorganized, the insecure subgroup with highest risk for psychopathology. This rate of disorganization is significantly lower than that found in at-risk samples, and it is identical to the rate that is typical of low-risk, middle-class samples.
Circle of Security Intervention
Bowlby-Ainsworth Award for clinical applications of attachment theory
New York Attachment Consortium - 2013
Advocate of the Year Award for Education
Sacred Heart Children’s Hospital Spokane, Washington - 2013
Regional Award of Honor "Delivering the Dream”
Head Start Region 10 Department of Health and Human Services - 2005
Community Service Award
SPO-CAN Council for the Prevention of Child Abuse - 2005
Governor’s Award for the Circle of Security Project
Washington Council for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect - 2000
Circle of Security Intervention:
Powell, B., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., & Marvin, B. (2013). The Circle of Security Intervention: Enhancing attachment in early parent-child relationships. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Zanetti, C., Powell, B., Cooper, G., & Hoffman, K. (2011). The Circle of Security Intervention: Using the therapeutic relationship to ameliorate attachment security. In J. Solomon & C. George (Eds.). Disorganized attachment and caregiving (pp. 318-342). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Blome, W.W., Bennett, S., & Page, T. (2010). Organizational challenges to implementing attachment-based practices in public child welfare agencies: An example using the Circle of Security model. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 4(4), 427-449.
Page, T. & Cain, D.S. (2009). “Why don’t you just tell me how you feel?”: A case study of a young mother in an attachment-based group intervention. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26(4), 333-350.
Powell, B., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., & Marvin, R. (2009). The Circle of Security. In C. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health, (3rd ed., pp. 450-467). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Avery, L., Matthews, J., Hoffman, K., Powell, B., & Cooper, G. (2008). Project Same Page: An evaluation of an attachment training seminar. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 2, 495-509.
Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., Marvin, R., & Powell, B. (2007). Clinical application of attachment theory: The Circle of Security approach. In K. Golding (Ed.), Attachment theory into practice, Briefing Paper No. 26, British Psychological Society.
Powell, B., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K. & Marvin, R. (2007). The Circle of Security: A case study. In D. Oppenhiem & D. Goldsmith (Eds.). The added value of attachment theory for clinical work: Bridging the gap between research and practice (pp. 172-202). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Cassidy, J. & Powell, B. (2006) Help baby develop a secure attachment. In S. Ettus (Ed.). The Expert’ guide to the baby years (pp. 214-216). New York, NY: Clarkson Potter Publishers.
Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., Powell, B., & Marvin, R. (2005). The Circle of Security intervention: Differential diagnosis and differential treatment. In L. J. Berlin, Y. Ziv, L. M. Amaya-Jackson, & M. T. Greenberg (Eds.). Enhancing early attachments: Theory, research, intervention, and policy (pp. 127-151). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Cassidy, J., Woodhouse, S. S., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., Powell, B., & Rodenberg, M. (2005). Examination of the precursors of infant attachment security: Implications for early intervention and intervention research. In L. J. Berlin, Y. Ziv, L. M. Amaya-Jackson, & M. T. Greenberg (Eds.). Enhancing early attachments: Theory, research, intervention, and policy (pp. 34-60). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Marvin, R., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K. & Powell, B. (2002). The Circle of Security Project: Attachment-based intervention with caregiver-pre-school child dyads. Attachment & Human Development, 4, 107-124.
Reprinted in German (2003) as: Das Projekt Kreis der Sicherheit: Bindungsgeleitete Intervention bei Eltern-Kind-Dyaden im Vorschulalter in Scheuerer-English, H., Suess, G. & Pfeifer, W. (Eds) Wege zur Sicherheit.